For the past half year, I have been busy with other things and haven’t had a chance to participate in a CTF. This time, I made time for GoogleCTF 2024 and solved all the web challenges with my teammates.

The challenges were interesting as always. I participated in three of them, while my teammates quickly solved the other two simpler ones before I could even take a look. Nevertheless, I will make a brief record of them. I really enjoy CTF challenges that are mostly client-side focused.


  1. Bypassing URL parser
  2. Adding strings after parseInt
  3. [a-Z] regex includes special characters
  4. Cookie tossing
  5. CSS injection

Read More is a service that automatically provides front-end polyfills, making it very convenient to use. You just need to select the functionality you want to polyfill and then include a JavaScript file like this:

<script src=""></script>

The server will automatically determine based on the user-agent whether to return a polyfill, so only the necessary code will be included. It sounds convenient and useful.

However, some people may have received notifications from Google Ads recently about a security issue. Why is that?

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Last month’s (January 2024) Intigriti challenge was very interesting, made by @kevin_mizu. I have often seen him post client-side related challenges on Twitter before, and this time the quality of the challenge was as good as ever, worth documenting.

The challenge link is here, if you haven’t seen it yet, you can take a look:

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Compared to last year and the year before, the difficulty of this year’s web challenges has significantly decreased, making them more approachable and beginner-friendly(It’s good to have both easy and difficult challenges). With the effort of my teammates, we managed to secure the first place, leaving only one web challenge unsolved.

This time, I only managed to solve the simple “funnylogin” and the challenging “safestlist” challenges. The rest were solved by my teammates. I also took a look at another challenge called “another-csp”. Therefore, this post will only cover the challenges I reviewed and the more difficult ones.

If you want to see other challenges, you can refer to other people’s writeups:

  1. st98 - DiceCTF 2024 Quals writeup
  2. 0xOne - 2024 Dice CTF Write up [Web]

All challenge source code provided by the organizers can be found at:

Keyword list:

  1. crash chromium
  2. slower css style
  3. xsleak
  4. URL length limit
  5. service worker
  6. background fetch
  7. connection pool + css injection
  8. iframe width + css injection

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This year’s 0CTF had a total of three web challenges, one of which was client-side. I only solved this particular challenge and managed to get the first blood. This post will briefly document my solution.

Keyword list:

  1. CSS injection
  2. CSS exfiltration

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Due to being busy lately, I haven’t been participating in CTFs as much in the past two or three months. However, I still come across some interesting challenges on Twitter. Even though I don’t have time to solve them, I still take notes because if I don’t, I won’t be able to solve them later for sure.

This post mainly documents some web front-end related challenges. Since I might not have personally solved them, the content is based on references from others’ notes, with some personal insights added.

Keyword list:

  1. copy paste XSS
  2. connection pool
  3. content type UTF16
  4. multipart/mixed
  5. Chrome DevTools Protocol
  6. new headless mode default download
  7. Scroll to Text Fragment (STTF)
  8. webVTT cue xsleak
  9. flask/werkzeug cookie parsing quirks

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On November 9, 2023, Sentry published an article on their blog titled Next.js SDK Security Advisory - CVE-2023-46729. The article discusses the details of the CVE-2023-46729 vulnerability, including its cause, discovery time, and patching time.

Although the vulnerability was officially announced on 11/9, it was actually fixed in version 7.77.0 released on 10/31. Some time was given to developers to patch the vulnerability.

Now let’s briefly discuss the cause and attack method of this vulnerability.

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Both of these competitions had many interesting but challenging problems. I really learned a lot.

Keyword list:

  1. nim json, null byte
  2. nim request smuggling
  3. js-yaml
  4. web worker
  5. blob URL
  6. meta redirect
  7. file protocol & .localhost domain
  8. sxg: Signed Exchanges
  9. 431 CSP bypass
  10. DOM clobbering document.body
  11. ejs delimiter
  12. Node.js + Deno prototype pollution gadget
  13. XSleaks golang sort

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I participated in both of these events to some extent, but I didn’t look at every challenge. This post is just a note to briefly record the solutions, without going into too much detail.

As usual, here are the keywords I noted:

  1. GraphQL batch query + alias
  2. Python os.path.join absolute path
  3. Svg XSS, foreignObject
  4. WebRTC CSP bypass
  5. Status code xsleak
  6. DNS rebinding
  7. nmap command injection
  8. Ruby rack file upload temporary storage
  9. buildConstraintViolationWithTemplate EL injection
  10. Request smuggling
  11. document.baseURI
  12. 200/404 status code xsleak

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